Sample collection

Captured animals were removed from Sherman traps weighed and anaesthetized with diethyl ether, immediately after death the animal was disinfected on the belly side, aseptically blood was collected from the heart or orbital vein using syringes and or capillary tubes respectively.

Collected blood was used for serum and blood smear preparations.

Blood smears

Thick and thin blood smears were made on microscopic slides and air dried, then after fixed with 1:1 ether: ethanol for five minutes.

Serum preparation

The whole blood was left to clot at room temperature and centrifuged at 4000 rpm for five minutes for serological studies.

Morphological data 

The animal was sexed and length measurements of head and body, tail, and ear were taken using ruler and digital caliper after weighing; the data were used  for preliminary identification.

Ectoparasites collection

Each animal was brushed with cotton wool soaked in diethyl ether from the back to front (against the fur) over a big pan. The ectoparasites were picked using camel hair brush and preserved in eppendorf tubes containing 70% ethanol.


Animals were dissected in order to collect internal organs such as liver, kidney, heart and spleen. Organs for molecular studies were placed in micro vial containing 95% ethanol. After dissecting,

the intestinal tract of each animal was removed and placed in specimen container with methylated spirit for gastro-intestinal Tract (GIT) endoparasites studies.

Disposal of carcasses  

The carcasses were preserved in 10% formalin for further studies in future.